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Limits of end-to-end encryption

Skype, WhatsApp, Telegram, Signal, Protonmail—more and more services offer end-to-end encryption. While this is good for privacy, it is not a magic bullet. In this article, we show you some limits of E2EE.

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What is E2EE?

End-to-end encryption (E2EE) ensures the confidentiality of data sent from one endpoint to another. For instance, you send a message to a friend overseas using your instant messenger that supports E2EE. Only your device and the device of your friend can decrypt this message. All other parties involved (your internet service provider, servers of the instant messaging service or criminals) can’t decrypt and read your messages.

E2EE isn’t new. The 1964 memorandum “On Distributed Communications: IX. Security, Secrecy, and Tamper-Free Considerations” already mentions its principle. GnuPG users (released in 1999) or Off-the-Record Messaging (OTR, released in 2004) already use E2EE for years.

Common problems

There are some pitfalls when you use E2EE, and E2EE doesn’t mean you are in full control of your data.

Vulnerable endpoints

First of all, there are the endpoints of end-to-end encrypted communication. Nowadays, we mostly use our smartphones for communication, and smartphones are generally less secure than classic personal computers. Our smartphones store most data in cleartext, so an attacker can try to read your communication by attacking your smartphone. This isn’t uncommon at all. Intelligence services and law enforcement agencies take this approach since it is easier to break into your smartphone than breaking state-of-the-art encryption.

You have to protect all endpoints involved. E2EE doesn’t protect your communication on endpoints. Use full-disk encryption to protect messages on your devices.

Unencrypted cloud backups

Unencrypted cloud backups are the next pitfall. Some services offer online backups, so you can restore all of your data in case of losing your device. However, these backups aren’t always encrypted. Cleartext backups effectively undermine end-to-end encryption that isn’t E2EE anymore. An attacker can try to attack your service provider now or, in the case of public authorities, your service provider may be required by law to hand over unencrypted backups.

We recommend storing your backups locally.

Insecure encryption algorithms or implementations

Some services implemented custom self-developed encryption algorithms. Sometimes, we read conspiracy theories that the National Security Agency undermined AES and RSA, so we all have to use “no-name algorithms” to stay secure. The golden rule is only using publicly-known and audited algorithms.

However, focusing on algorithms isn’t enough. A product isn’t secure if it uses “AES-256,” “RSA-4096,” or some “military-grade encryption.” The actual implementation of algorithms is also significant.

Check if a product uses well-known encryption algorithms and crypto libraries only. Check for recent third-party security audits of the whole product. Keep in mind that encryption algorithms currently considered “secure” can become obsolete in the future.


Frequently, governments all over the world discuss backdoors in software and hardware to bypass encryption. While privacy activists and well-known cryptographers warn against backdoors, politicians and authorities advocate backdoors as the only way to protect people against terrorism and so on.

TSA luggage locks represent a real-world backdoor. These locks allow Transportation Security Administration agents to open baggage for security screening. However, The Washington Post inadvertently published a photo of TSA’s physical master keys in a 2014 article, making it possible for criminals to copy all keys and also open these locks. This shows the risk of backdoors if implemented in products or algorithms.

While some people repeatedly say that the only protection against backdoors is open-source code, we don’t think this is sufficient. Open source doesn’t automatically mean that somebody checked the code for backdoors. Check for recent third-party security audits of the whole product. Don’t rely on “security due to being open source.”

No verification

End-to-end encryption uses public-key cryptography. Two distinct cryptographic keys are involved: Your private, secret key and a public key that isn’t secret at all. Modern encryption algorithms are more complicated; however, there is always the need to verify that your device is talking with the right remote device and that no man-in-the-middle is involved.

Some services offer their own mechanisms to automatize verification. For instance, they automatically trust a new key if there was no known key before. Don’t rely on these mechanisms. Manually verify other devices out-of-band. “Out-of-band” means you have to use other authenticated channels like websites with HTTPS, a phone call, or a personal meeting.

Personal data and metadata on servers

End-to-end encryption protects the content of your messages, but it may not protect your personal data or metadata. There is always metadata involved since computers need to know how to handle data packets (sender, receiver, size, protocol, etc.). You simply can’t avoid metadata if you communicate. However, some protocols generate more metadata than others, and some protocols encrypt some of the metadata while other protocols keep everything in cleartext.

Another point is the storage of personal data. Some services store most of your personal data on servers out of your control in cleartext. For example, XMPP servers store all of your contacts, group memberships, and other information in cleartext, even if you are using end-to-end encryption. Furthermore, admins can monitor whether your device received a specific message and if you read this particular message. On the other hand, Signal keeps most data on the devices to avoid disclosure to servers.

Always check the amount of personal data stored by a service provider before using this service. Read the privacy policy and reports on the internet. Sometimes, the server software documentation clarifies which data is stored on the server and how it is protected.

Digital communication at all

Some people say that decentralization and federation are more important than end-to-end encryption; others suggest decentralization and federation protect against mass surveillance.

Keep in mind that online communication is always somewhat centralized due to the internet backbone, internet service providers, service providers of web servers, etc. There is no invisible traffic that can’t be spotted if you use the internet or even Tor. We always recommend using end-to-end encryption to keep the content of your messages private.


End-to-end encryption ensures the confidentiality of message contents. It neither automatically ensures authenticity nor anonymity.

If a product offers end-to-end encryption, check for recent security audits covering the whole product, disable unencrypted cloud backups, and verify that you are talking with your friends. Keep in mind that there is always metadata involved and check whether this service stores personal data on its servers.

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